The wood industry has seen significant changes in different aspects of the industry. One of these is the continual development of woodworking machinery. Woodworking machines refer to machines used in processing woods. These machines are used to cut, shape, and smoothen woods to give a desirable result. Right from the felling stage, to the end product, woodworking machines are involved in every woodworking procedure.
There are different types of woodworking machine, and they include;
- Chisel mortiser
A jointer is a machine used to cut through the woods to flatten or straighten their edges. Depending on what the wood maker aims to achieve, the jointer is used to shapen the wood to give a flat surface, to trim edges and square off the sides of woods for use. This industrial machine is used to develop flat edges on board before joining them together to form a larger board. As it might be challenging to get a whole wood which can serve an immediate purpose, the jointer allows the wood makers to sharply and neatly join boards edge to edge without making the joint obvious.
Whether the wood comes rough or in an uneven shape and size, the jointer prepares the wood, thus making it perfect for use. Every woodworker must depend on the jointer. In fact, without it, there may be no finished product. While there are different types of jointers, a jointer that delivers the right result is one that ensures that woods are perfectly fitted together to make it easy to complete other tasks.
There are different types of jointers, and each is made for a specific type of project. While they are all developed to meet the same needs, they give different ‘finishes’ depending on the job.
Closed Stand Jointer
The closed stand jointer is the most common type of jointer. It contains enclosed, stable, and strong bases that guide the blades, motor, and other parts of the internal component from the dust and dirt generated during the wood cutting process. Most woodmakers prefers the closed stand wood because it can stand the test of time. More so, it’s reduced noise and vibration makes it a great choice of jointer when there is the need to work on time taking task like the facing board. One of the useful attributes of the closed stand jointer is the incorporation of an adjustable level which allows the woodworker to fasten the position of the infeed table. As it requires no specific level of expertise before the closed stand jointer can be used, woodworkers can easily change the speed control feature to their convenience. Depending on the size of wood to be worked on, this jointer comes in sizes 6, 8, 12, and 16.
Open Stand Jointer
Unlike the closed stand jointer, the open stand jointer is easy to light and easy to move. This jointer is best for people who need to move between their job site and workshop. Open stand allows wood makers to make use of their open stand jointer irrespective of their location. The open stand jointer is easy to operate as it includes a stable stand that allows the wood maker to set the machine to a convenient height. Just as the close stand jointer, the open stand includes dust extraction features that increase the lifespan of the motor. However, its open cabinet makes it noisier than other jointers, and its non-solid metal component causes more vibration.
Bench Top Jointer
The benchtop jointer is also as popular as other jointer types. This jointer type combines the portability feature of the open stand jointer with the effectiveness and reliability status of the closed stand jointer. It is built with a solid metal body to make it last longer. It also includes an adjustable table, guard and fences for flexible and accurate trimming of woods. Although the benchtop jointer is very effective, it may not be useful to every wood maker due to its smaller motor.
Table Top Jointer
While a benchtop jointer may not be able to handle the flattening of heavier woods, the tabletop jointer is the best for flattening denser woods. Although it isn’t portable, it is effective for perfect trimming of woods. The table top jointer is built with larger and bigger table, which makes it easy for woodworkers to work on larger woods whether they are operating on a small scale or large scale.
Some jointer machines come as a combination of a jointer and a planer. A combined jointer allows the woodworker to cut woods according to exact dimensions while helping them to create a flat and sharp surface. There are two types of combined jointer:
- The over-under combination: This is built with a single cutter and a single table. Woodworkers who use this type of combine jointer have to adjust the settings to switch from a jointer to a planer and a planer back to a jointer.
- The side by side combination: In a side by side combination, the jointer is fixed next to the planer. The woodworker does not have to buy a separate planer.
The combined jointer helps the woodworker to save as they have access to a machine that has multiple functions. They can also save on their workspace with a single machine with multiple functions.
It is easier for woodworkers to shape woods with the use of saws. Wood makers make use of different saws to cut woods into different shapes and sizes. Depending on what needs to be done, woodworkers can make use of hand or electrically powered saws to work on a project.
Some hand saws are used for general wood cutting while some are used for the specific woodcutting activity. Hand saws include:
BackSaw: A short saw with a contracted blade and a stiff end which is mainly used to achieve fine straight cut. Its reinforced edge helps the user to control the cutting process consistently
Coping Saw: Coping Saw is a C-shaped hand saw with an interchangeable fine thin blade. This saw is mainly used for scrolling, cutting tight radiuses, trim work, and cuttings that require accuracy.
HackSaw: A C-shaped hand saw with a fine blade. As a sharp and handsaw, woodworkers find it easy to use.
BowSaw: Bowsaw is a type of cross-cutting saw. It is used to cut logs and to trim trees. It is also used for cuttings with rough edges.
Japanese Saw: Japanese Saw is a strong, single handle saw with a thin blade. It is used to cut dense and softwoods accurately
Keyhole Saw: Keyhole Saw is used to draw patterns and cut circles roughly. Its narrow cutting edge makes it useful for cutting areas that seem difficult to reach with other saws. It is best for drywall.
Rip Cut Saw: Rip-Cut Saw is best for framing. It is used to cut hardwood without experiencing difficulty. It leaves a clean cut on woods
Electrically Powered Saws
With the advancement in technology, powers saws have been developed to perform better than hand saws and to cut more precisely and efficiently. Some of the power saws for wood cutting include;
Jigsaw: Although jigsaw is handheld. It is also power operated. With a fine-toothed blade which functions at various speeds, Jigsaw can be used to cut various materials. It is best used to cut curved and other non-straight lines.
ChainSaw; A chainsaw can be used to cut large and small woods. Just as implied, it makes use of connected chains with rip teeth to cut through woods, tree works, and other materials
Miter Saw: Miter saw is designed to have a carbon steel circular blade which precisely cut angles as desired. It is also ideal for trimmings and wood cutting that require measurement.
Circular Saw: This is a lightweight, portable saw with a fine-toothed blade. Just as named, it has a circular blade which rotates while cutting wood. This saw can be used to cut all types of wood.
Chop Saw: This includes a cutting blade used to cut materials with soft and hard surfaces. While using, woodworkers have to move it manually in other to reach all necessary parts of the wood. It is usually connected to a water line to reduce dust.
Reciprocating Saw: This is a handheld power saw with a reciprocating blade that moves back and forth to cut woods and other materials. Although it is very fast, it does not produce a perfect cut.
Table Saw: This is used to cut large pieces of wood. It is usually developed with a high-speed motor and a flat table. Woodworkers can adjust the height of its blade to increase the depth of the cut. Most times, it is used to cut several identical wood pieces.
Flooring Saw: Flooring Saw is used to resaw hardwood floor. It replaces the use of miter or table saw as it is easy to move from a place to another.
A Shaper is a heavy machine used for woodworking. It is used to cut woods quickly and precisely. A shaper machine can consistently cut a large volume of woods without malfunctioning. More so, it can be used to cut seemingly complicated woods into bits, thus helping woodworkers to conserve their energy. Although a wood shaper is quite expensive, it saves time as it can function three times than other similar wood cutting machines. While most wood cutting machines are loud when used, a shaper produces less noise and vibration. Due to the effectiveness of shaper cutters, it is usually difficult to replace them.
Shaper Machine is classified based on
- Driving mechanism
- Ram travel
- Table design
- Cutting Stroke
Crank shaper: The Crank shaper is common among woodworkers. This shaper type functions through the use of a crank mechanism to change circular motion of the large gear to a linear motion of the ram. When this conversion happens, the ram does the cutting.
Gear Shaper: With the Gear shaper, the ram reciprocates with the pinion and the rack. Usually, the number of gears built with this gear shape determines the speed and direction of the gear shaper. Due to its pattern, the gear shaper is used in a few wood cutting establishments.
Hydraulic Shaper: This is the most recent type of shaper. Here, the hydraulic mechanism provides the reciprocating motion of the ram, thus putting pressure on the ram. Unlike the crank and gear shaper, the hydraulic shaper is smoother and quieter to run.
- Horizontal Shaper: While using the horizontal shaper, the ram reciprocates. It reciprocates while it holds the tool in a horizontal axis. Horizontal shaper is best used for the production of keyways, flat surfaces, and external grooves.
- Vertical Shaper: In a vertical shaper machine, the tool which houses the ram moves in a vertical position. Here, the ram can be driven by the crank driven shape, gear driven, screen, or the hydraulic power. Most times, vertical shapers are used in deep hole boring, keyway, and grooves application. Built with a very large table, a longitudinal, rotational, or cross movement may occur.
- Travelling Head Shaper: Travelling head shaper is used for large woods that cannot be placed on the top of the machine. As the ram reciprocates, it also provides different crosswise movement, thus ensuring that the right shape is cut out.
- Standard Shaper: Standard shaper has a table that moves vertically and horizontally. The table may be supported at the other end or not. These types of shapers are not generally used.
- Universal Shaper: This shaper is called a universal shaper because the table can move in other positions apart from the vertical and horizontal positions.
- Push Shaper: Push shaper is a commonly used shaper. It is called push shaper because the shaper pushes the material while removing the material from the machine itself. Here, the metal is detached when the ram moves from the column
- Draw Shaper: In draw shaper, the metal is removed when the ram moves towards the column, thus reducing the forces over the column and bearings.
A router is a type of woodworking machine that is used to cut woods and other materials into different shapes. Most times, it is used with router cutters to give the right shapes for the different finished product. It is also used to trim, mold, create holes, or a perfect joint. A router can be designed to be portable or fixed on a router table.
There are various types of routers, and they include;
- Plunge Router: The plunge router is a very versatile router. It works as sharp as the drill press when used. Most woodworkers prefer to use a plunge router as it allows them to pre-set the cut depth before lowering the plunge onto the wood. A plunge router is also used to sharpen the edges of woods.
- Fixed Base router: Unlike the plunge router, the fixed base router causes the position of the router bit to remain constant. This router doesn’t cut into the material from above but from the edge. When in use, the router cannot be adjusted.
- Heavy duty router: The heavy duty router is known as the heaviest and most effective hand router. Heavy duty router can hold cutters with the biggest cutting diameter. It can also be used regularly for a long period without a reduction in capacity
- Medium duty router: This router is a little bit lighter than the heavy duty type, thus making it more suitable for fragile works. Also, it is heavier than the light router, and that makes it more effective based on the wood type.
- Light duty router: They are used for activities that require lightweight. Unlike others, they are used occasionally for activities that are concluded within a short period. They can hold cutters with limited diameters.
- CNC router: Computer numerical router is a special router found in specific industries. Here, the router’s movement is controlled and determined by the computer, thus making it possible to set a proper cutting depth and feed rate. CNC router is commonly used in establishments that deal with a large quantity of woods.
Chisel mortiser is a special type of woodworking machine used to cut rectangular and square holes in woods or timber.
Types of Chisel Mortiser
- Square Chisel Mortiser: This type of mortiser is popularly known as the hollow chisel mortise. Its effectiveness is similar to that of the drill press. Woodworkers attach drill pressure to their square chisel mortiser through the use of a mortising attachment. Built with a four-sided chisel, the machine keeps the edges of the wood straight and clean while the attached drill clears out the wood, thus creating clean holes.
- Horizontal Mortising Machines: The horizontal mortising machines are used to block floating tenon, which may occur when two pieces of woods need to be attached using a third piece. Although wood makers also use the horizontal mortising machines to build tenon pairs and regular mortise, they are best used for floating tenons.
- Chain Mortising Machine: Unlike others, chain mortising machine is used for larger mortises. This type of machine has a chain with cutters, which is used to cut out the required part. Chain mortising machine is made in different width and a different number of chains. It is more expensive than other types of mortisers.
Although woodwork machines are very expensive, they make woodwork easier and faster. Woodworkers can achieve a faster result with these machines, but it is important to choose one that can be well utilized.